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In basic electricity using direct current, there exist a series and parallel circuit. A series ciruit has only one path for the electric charge to flow. The parallel circuit has two or more components connected across the same voltage source.

Ohm’s Law gives us:

V = I * R where V = voltage
R = V/I R = resistance
I = V/R I = current

So the current, I, is essentially the amount of electrons moving. Sort of like a velocity of the electric charge. It is measured in Amperes.

The voltage, V, is the amount of energy or force of the electric charge. It is measured in volts.

The resistance, R, is the amount of force resisting the movement of the electrical force. It is measured in ohms. It effects the electrical force proportionately, much like the coefficient of friction resist mechanical movement.


Power = V * I much like Power = velocity * force

But two questions arise. Demanding an mathematical or experiment to solve.

So why does a series circuit result in a change in current and a steady voltage?


Why does a parallel circuit result in a change in current and maintain a steady voltage?

Both circuits are mathematically possible. But what experiment or formula explains how the electrical charge is flowing through the circuit?

Working theory,

Obviously the position of the components change how the electrical charge flows. But why is this true? If an experiment or theory explains it, it would better explain the relationship between voltage and current.

References: including 1 and 2 :
“Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Basic Electricity” , Milton Gussow, M.S. McGraw-Hill, 1983

“Fundamentals of Physics fifth edition” Halliday, Resnick, Walker
John Wiley and Sons, 1997